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比较“嵌入式蜂窝设计”与“嵌入式 WiFi 设计”

Another translated article for my Chinese colleagues and readers (with thanks to Song Bin 宋斌) 

嵌入式开发人员应知道蜂窝(Cellular)连接和 WiFi 连接之间的差异,尤其是由原型制作转为生产设计阶段时这两种连接类型的差异。

 WiFi 连接相比,将蜂窝连接添加至嵌入式设计是否更为困难?如何从原型设计转化为生产即用设备呢?为回答诸多这些问题,我采访了 ARM 运营商关系部产品经理 Richard
Stamvik
以下是访谈部分。– JB

Blyler蜂窝连接是如何在诸如机器到机器 (M2M)和物联网 (IoT) 等应用的嵌入式开发空间中发挥作用?

Stamvik:作为产品营销团队的一份子,我帮助跟踪蜂窝网络空间的发展。对我们而言,产品营销是面向硅片供应商之外的客户,如设备供应商、软件开发人员和蜂窝网络运营商等。这一点十分重要,因为运营商是我们了解消费者需求的最亲密合作伙伴。

Security Levels the IoT Device and Server Landscape

Best practices, standards and a diverse ecosystem are essential for embedded developers to mitigate threats such as stack overflows and software backdoors.

What are the best practices when designing for device through server IoT security systems? This question was put to the experts at ARM, including Marc Canel, Vice President, Security Technologies; Jeff Underhill, Director of Server Programs; and Joakim Bech, Technical Lead for Security Working Group at Linaro. What follows is a portion of those interviews. – JB

Blyler: Security for the Internet of Things (IoT) spans everything from end-point sensors to connected devices, aggregated gateways, and middleware – all the way to servers. How can embedded designers deal with all the inherent complexity?

Bech: I think it’s impossible to get a detailed understanding in all areas. It is simply too much to handle. But luckily, you normally don’t have to focus on all IoT devices at the same time. Under normal conditions, the embedded designers work with a limited set of products in a specific area. The tricky part is when these devices develop their own communication that result in an un-tested area where you could potentially have both bugs and security flaws to an even greater extent than standard protocols. Therefore, if possible, it’s almost always better and preferable to adhere to a predefined standard, instead of inventing new protocols.

IoT vs. Traditional Embedded for Analog, Low Power and Security

In Part III, technology leaders from STMicro, Atmel, Mouser, Synopsys, Movea, and ARM, define the big challenges in IoT – mixed signal, low power and security.

Will the Internet-of-Things (IoT) bring new analog integration, low power and security challenges to traditional SoC and embedded designs? To answer these questions, System Design Engineering sat down Bernard Kasser, Director Security R&D, Advanced System Technology, STMicroelectronic; Bob Martin, Senior Manager Microcontroller Group Central Applications, Atmel; Kevin Parmenter, Director of Technical Resources, Mouser; Steve Smith, Senior Director of Marketing, AMS Group, Synopsys; Cyrille Soubeyrat, VP of Engineering at Movea; and Diya Soubra, CPU Product Marketing Manager, ARM. What follows are excerpts from that discussion. – JB

Can Innovation Save the Planet?

Natural resource depletion and environmental challenges threaten all life. Can technologies like the IoT help to reduce the human footprint on Planet Earth?

Technology is often seen as both a blessing and a curse. Many people believe that technological advances only accelerate our dwindling natural resources. How can science and technology be used to reduce consumption on a global scale? To answer these questions, John Blyler talked with Ramez Naam, a fellow at the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies. Naam is a computer scientist, former CEO of Apex nanotechnoloiges and Microsoft team leader. His latest book is titled; “The Infinite Resource – The Power of Ideas on a Finite Planet. –JB

Blyler: Technology is often seen as a mechanism that increases the depletion of resources, e.g., consumers consume more not less with technology. Can technology really be used to drive innovation and conserve resources?

Naam: Tech absolutely can increase our resource use and our rate of pollution. But used intelligently it can turn things around.  In the 70s we had massive smog. We were punching a hole in the ozone layer. We had rivers literally catching on fire. We had acid rain. Now the air and water in the US are the cleanest they’ve been in decades. We invented new ways to run air conditioners and refrigerators that are allowing the ozone layer to recover. And the average American uses less oil and less water each year than at any time since the 1960s.

Look ahead and we can see more opportunities. We have to beat climate change, and technology has to play a huge role in that. People want energy. Civilization needs energy. So we’re going to need to keep innovating in things like solar and wind and batteries – and more ways to be efficient in energy use – so we can phase out coal and oil and natural gas while keeping civilization moving.

All of that depends on progress in science and technology.

Blyler: What are some of the hard policy choices we need to make in order to win the race between innovation and resource depletion?

Naam: The technology innovation goes hand in hand with changes in policy. When we turned things around on the ozone layer, it wasn’t as simple as a sudden breakthrough in cooling technology.

The ozone layer is a commons. Everyone on the planet benefits from it. But no one owns it. No one was protecting it. No one was saying “you can’t do this thing that damages it.”

So the first thing we had to do was create a policy that phased out the chemicals that were damaging the ozone layer – CFCs.  Once that agreement – the Montreal Protocol – was signed, the incentive to create and sell and deploy new ways to cool food and homes and cars was huge. Businesses took care of the rest. Once their incentives were right.

Our air, our rivers, our oceans and our climate are all the same. The biggest policy change we need to make is to protect those commons. Once create rules that say ‘you can’t deplete this common resource; you can’t dump pollution into this resource we all depend on’ – then the market tends to find a way to fix the problem.

And very specifically, on climate change, that means some sort of rules that limit the dumping of carbon into the atmosphere, either by capping it, or by putting a price on it. Do that, and you’ll see a fast switch over to solar and wind and other forms of clean energy.

Blyler: The Internet of Things (IoT) is a key driver of innovation in today’s electronic semiconductor markets. Will IoT technologies and the proliferation of a connected sensor world help or hinder the cause of resource preservation?

Naam: The Internet of Things is a big fuzzy term. It means a lot of things to a lot of people. But under that umbrella there are at least two things that will make a big difference. One is getting more data and more control over our buildings, homes, cars, appliances, and all the other objects that fill our lives. A lot of our energy gets used heating and running all that stuff. A simple example is the Nest thermostat, which Google bought. It learns your patterns of how and when you come home and when you get up, and can heat and cool your house appropriately and save you money and energy. That can also reduce the amount of carbon we pump into the atmosphere. Down the road, data from that sort of device can be used to figure out the cheapest time to charge an electric car, or even to give energy back from the car to the grid, or to give the grid data about how and when to balance load across sites.

The second case I think we’ll see a huge impact of is environmental sensors. Sensors are getting cheaper, smaller, and less power-hungry all the time. That means we can start to use them in big ways to look for environmental toxins, to monitor the health of forests, to track endangered species and catch poachers.

Any way you cut it, the ability to get more data about our world and the objects in it is going to help us conserve.

Blyler: Let’s switch gears to talk about your works of science fiction. What do you see as the difference between fiction and non-fiction? Why does Sci-Fi apeal to you – and most technical professionals?

Naam: Science fiction fires the imagination. It frees of from the constraints of the current world we live in, and lets us imagine new ones. And that’s tremendously exciting.

The big difference for me is where I focus. In my non-fiction I tend to zoom out and tell the big picture story of how all the pieces fit together. In my science fiction, there’s a big picture backdrop, but I’m always telling the story through the lens of people who are being swept along in some way that powerfully affects them personally. The first rule in fiction is to never let the reader put the book down.

Blyler: Thank you.

Listen to Ramez Naam on May 7, 2014, in Portland, OR. Naam is a guest speaker at the next Linus Pauling lecture series. See isepp.org for more information and tickets.

 Originally post on the System Design Engineering site.

How Will the Next 50 Billion Devices Shape Our Future?

IoT sensors breed a new future as technology fades into the background. Old industries are reformed, new applications light up and take flight while data stalls. Tomorrow begins today!

With more than 50 billion devices already in the market, what does the future hold for ARM and the innovation for the next 100 billion ARM-based chips? To find out, Krisztian Flautner, Vice President of R&D at ARM shared his insights with John Blyler Chief Content Officer at Extension Media. What follows is a portion of that conversation.

Read complete post on the ARM Connected Community

Daimler’s Challenge with Simulation

Automotive giant Daimler wrestles with the best way to incorporate hardware-software verification and integration tools in future designs.

Recently, I talked with the engineers at Daimler Truck North America (DTNA) about trends in automotive hardware-software verification and integration. There were two main themes that ran throughout my presentation:

  1. Growing system complexity and cost combined with shrinking time-to-market cycles means that model-based, IP-rich simulations will replace many hardware-in-the-loop-based verification techniques.
  2. Hardware is indeed becoming a commodity, but it will never completely be replaced by software. Furthermore, hardware will evolve into tangential markets.

Experience Alters High Tech Definition

The high tech experience is no longer limited to one device type as capital and complexity barrier breeches allow innovation in new markets.

What is the future of semiconductor high technology development and creation? To find out, System Design Engineering talked with Olivier Ribet, Vice President of High Tech Industry for Dassault Systemes. What follows is a portion of that conversation. – JB

Read complete post on the System Design Engineering site.

The Current State Of Model-Driven Engineering

Panelists from industry, national laboratories, and the Portland State System Engineering graduate program recently gathered for an open forum on model-driven engineering.

The goal of the forum—which was hosted in collaboration with PSU, the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) and IEEE—was to connect systems engineering and IT modeling to domain specialties in electronic/electrical, mechanical and software engineering. Panelists included speakers from Mentor Graphics, ANSYS, CH2M Hill, Pacific Northwest National labs, SAIC, Veterans Affair Resource Center and PSU.

To clarify what is meant by systems engineering (SE), Herman Migliore, director of PSU’s SE program, cited Norm Augustine’s often quoted definition: Systems engineering is the practice of creating means of performing useful functions through combination of two of more interacting components. This broad definition encompasses all domain specific SE disciplines, including hardware and software.